Insulin resistance is a condition that occurs when muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond well to insulin and cannot use glucose from the blood for energy to compensate for this. The pancreas produces more insulin over time. Blood sugar levels rise..
According to a report by webmed Insulin resistance syndrome includes a range of problems such as obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. It can affect up to 1 in 3 Americans. You may also hear it called metabolic syndrome..
Symptoms of insulin resistance
You can’t tell you have insulin resistance by how you feel. You’ll need to have a blood test that checks your blood sugar levels.
Likewise, you won’t know if you have most other conditions that are part of insulin resistance syndrome (high blood pressure, low levels of “good” cholesterol, high triglycerides) without seeing your doctor..
Some signs of insulin resistance include:
- Waist circumference more than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women
- Blood pressure readings 130/80 or higher
- A fasting glucose level greater than 100 mg/dL
- Fasting triglyceride level over 150 mg/dL
- cholesterol level HDL Less than 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women
- skin tags
- Patches of dark, velvety skin called acanthosis nigricans
Risk factors and causes of insulin resistance
Things that can make this condition more likely include:
- Obesity, especially belly fat
- inactive lifestyle
- Diet rich in carbohydrates
- Pregnancy diabetes
- Health conditions such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and PCOS
- Family history of diabetes
- Age likely to be after 45
- Hormonal disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome and acromegaly
- Medications such as steroids, antipsychotics, and HIV medications
- Sleep problems such as sleep apnea
Diagnostics and tests for insulin resistance
Your doctor will use these to diagnose insulin resistance:
Questions: They will want to know your family’s medical history.
Physical exam: It is to determine the weight and check blood pressure.
Fasting plasma glucose test: This test measures blood sugar after not eating for at least 8 hours.
Oral glucose tolerance test: First, you’ll have a fasting glucose test and then you’ll drink a sugar solution. Two hours later, you will have another blood test.
hemoglobin test A1c: This blood test shows the average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Doctors use it to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes. If you have diabetes, this helps show if it’s under control. You may need to take the test again to confirm the results..
How does insulin resistance develop into type 2 diabetes
When you have insulin resistance, your pancreas produces more insulin to compensate. This will work for a while and your blood sugar levels will remain normal.
However, over time, the pancreas will not be able to keep up with growth if you do not make changes in the way you eat and exercise, and your blood sugar levels will rise until you develop prediabetes. Your doctor will look for the following blood test results:
Fasting plasma glucose test: 100-125
Oral glucose tolerance test: 140-199 after the second test
consequences A1c 5.7% to 6.4%
If you are not able to control prediabetes, you will be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when test levels reach:
Fasting plasma glucose test: 126 or higher
Oral glucose tolerance test: 200 or higher after the second test
consequences A1c 6.5% or higher